Māori Twitter Corpus

The Reo Māori Twitter (RMT) Corpus is a collection of 79,018 te reo Māori tweets, designed for linguistic analysis and to help in the development of new Natural Language Processing (NLP) resources for the Māori community. The corpus captures output from 2,302 users, including a mixture of personal and institutional accounts. These users were identified via Prof. Kevin Scannell's Indigenous Tweets website.

Download the RMT Corpus

The tweets and user metadata in the RMT Corpus can be hydrated (downloaded from Twitter) using the code provided. The source code is adapted from Twitter's sample code for API v2 endpoints.

Note: Some tweets in the corpus are no longer publicly available and, as such, cannot be downloaded. Please email David Trye if you would like access to the complete dataset, including additional metadata mentioned in our paper.

The speed at which you can download the corpus depends on the rate limit for your Twitter developer account (e.g. 300 or 900 requests per 15-minute window). If you exceed the allocated limit, a 429 'Too many requests' error will be returned.

pip install requests
pip install requests-oauthlib
export 'BEARER_TOKEN'='<your_bearer_token>'
python get_tweets_with_bearer_token.py > output.json

This will download the corpus in batches of 100 tweets. If you use the default settings, the script will take roughly 45 minutes to run, as it will attempt to download 30,000 tweets (300 requests x 100 tweets) every 15 minutes. The resulting file, output.json, is only pseudo-JSON (each batch is separated by a line in the form "Batch X, Code Y", where X and Y are numbers).

python json_to_tsv.py

This script will produce a file called rmt-corpus-final.csv, which you can then open in a spreadsheet application. Tweet text is formatted consistently (special characters are removed, any HTML is decoded, and user mentions and links are standardised). The tweets are also supplemented with metadata from the original rmt-corpus-v1.csv file. A description of the variables in each of the CSV files is given below.

Data Description: rmt-corpus-v1.csv

The following information (where known) is supplied in rmt-corpus-v1.csv, even if the tweet is no longer available on Twitter.

Data Column Description
id Twitter's unique identifier for the tweet. You can search for a tweet online by visiting twitter.com/user/status/XXX, where XXX is the tweet's ID.
num_maori_words The number of Māori words in the tweet.
total_words The total number of words in the tweet.
percent_maori The percentage of Māori text detected in the tweet (=num_maori_words / total_words*100).
favourites The number of favourites (likes, retweets & quotes) that the given tweet received.
reply_count The number of replies that the given tweet received.
user.alias An alias for the author of the tweet in the form TX, where X represents the user’s ranking based on their total number of tweets in the corpus (user.num_tweets).
user.status The account status (as of Decemeber 2020) of the user who wrote the tweet: 'active', 'protected', 'suspended' or 'not found'.
user.followers The user's number of followers (as of December 2020).
user.friends The number of accounts that the user follows (as of December 2020).
user.num_tweets The total number of tweets in the corpus that were written by this user.
user.region The user's location, based on self-reported information. Where possible, the data has been aggregated into New Zealand regions and names of foreign countries.
year The year the tweet was written (between 2007 and 2020).

Data Description: rmt-corpus-final.csv

If the tweet is still publicly available on Twitter, the following variables will appear alongside those mentioned above. Missing values are indicated with 'None':

Data Column Description
text The tweet content, with consistent formatting applied (special characters stripped, user mentions and links standardised).
conversation_id The ID for the conversation that the tweet is part of.
in_reply_to_user_id If the tweet is written in reply to another, this is the ID of the user who who wrote the original tweet.
author_id Twitter's unique identifier for the user who wrote the tweet.
created_at The timestamp when the tweet was posted, in the format YYYY-MM-DDTHH:mm:ss.000Z.
lang The two-letter code representing the language that the tweet was (erroneously) classified as (NOT Māori, as the API does not support te reo).
source The device or third-party application from which the tweet was posted (e.g. 'Twitter Web Client', 'Twitter for iPhone').
error The reason why the tweet could not be downloaded, if there was an error ('Authorization Error', 'Not Found Error', 'None').

Other Resources

Citing the RMT Corpus

If you use the RMT corpus, please cite the following paper:


External Collaborators:


We graciously acknowledge the generous support of:

The information on this page was last checked in April 2021. Please let us know if you notice any errors in the code and/or instructions. As of 12 April 2021, 72,575 tweets (91.85% of the RMT Corpus) could be successfully downloaded from Twitter.