Methods in MEKA#

The description of methods given here is only a summary, with some command-line examples. All examples assume that the classpath is already set, e.g., by using the command line flag -cp target/meka-X.Y.Z.jar:lib/* (in Linux). See the Tutorial for more information. All examples are given usen -t data.arff which implies a train/test split. For other options, see the Tutorial.

Binary Relevance Methods#

Binary relevance methods create an individual model for each label. This means that each model is a simply binary problem, but many labels means many models which can easily fill up memory.

Class Name Description / Notes Examples
BR Binary Relevance Individual classifiers java meka.classifiers.multilabel.BR -t data.arff -W weka.classifiers.functions.SMO
CC Classifier Chains .. linked in a cascaded chain, random node order java meka.classifiers.multilabel.CC -t data.arff -W weka.classifiers.functions.SMO
CT Classifier Trellis .. linked in a trellis, connectivity L, heuristic X java meka.classifiers.multilabel.CT -L 2 -X Ibf -t data.arff -W weka.classifiers.functions.SMO
CDN p Classifier Dependency Network Fully-connected, undirected, I iterations, Ic of which for collecting marginals java meka.classifiers.multilabel.CDN -I 1000 -Ic 100 -t data.arff -W weka.classifiers.functions.SMO -- -M
CDT p Classifier Dependency Trellis .. in a trellis structure of connectivity L, heuristic X java meka.classifiers.multilabel.CDT -I 1000 -Ic 100 -L 3 -t data.arff -W weka.classifiers.functions.SMO -- -M
meta.BaggingML m Ensembles of Classifier Chains (ECC) A Bagging ensemble of I chains, bagging P % of the instances java meka.classifiers.multilabel.meta.BaggingML -I 10 -P 100 -t data.arff -W meka.classifiers.multilabel.CC -- -W weka.classifiers.functions.SMO
meta.RandomSubspaceML m Subspace Ensembles of Classifier Chains .. where each chain is given only a A percent of the attributes java meka.classifiers.multilabel.meta.RandomSubspaceML -I 10 -P 80 -A 50 -t data.arff -W meka.classifiers.multilabel.CC -- -W weka.classifiers.functions.SMO
PCC p Probabilistic Classifier Chains A classifier chain with Bayes Optimal inference, (exponential trials) java meka.classifiers.multilabel.PCC -t data.arff -W weka.classifiers.functions.Logistic
MCC p Monte-Carlo Classifier Chains .. with Monte Carlo search, maximum of Iy inference trials and Is chain-order trails java meka.classifiers.multilabel.MCC -Iy 100 -Is 10 -t data.arff -W weka.classifiers.functions.Logistic
PMCC p Population of Monte-Carlo Classifier Chains .. a population of M chains is kept (not just the best) java meka.classifiers.multilabel.PMCC -Iy 100 -Is 50 -M 10 -t data.arff -W weka.classifiers.functions.Logistic
BCC Bayesian Classifier Chains Tree connectivity based on Maximum Spanning Tree algorithm java meka.classifiers.multilabel.BCC -t data.arff -W weka.classifiers.bayes.NaiveBayes


  • m indicates a meta method, can be used with any other Meka classifier. Only examples are given here.
  • p indicates probabilistic base classifier required (at least, recommended) -- a classifier which can output a probability between 0 and 1 for each label.
  • s indicates a semi-supervised method, which will use the test data (minus labels) to help train.

Label Powerset Methods#

Label powerset inspired classifiers generally provide excellent performance, although only some parameterizations will be able to scale up to larger datasets. In most situations, RAkEL is a good option. PS methods work best when there are only a few typical combinations of labels, and most combinations occur only once and can be pruned away. EPS will work better. MEKA's implementation of RAkELd is in fact a combination of RAkEL + PS, and should scale up to thousands or even tens of thousands of labels (with enough pruning).

Class Name Description / Notes Examples
MajorityLabelset Majority Lableset Always predicts most common labelset java meka.classifiers.multilabel.MajorityLabelset -t data.arff
LC Label Combination / Label Powerset As a multi-class problem java meka.classifiers.multilabel.LC -t data.arff -W weka.classifiers.functions.SMO
PS Pruned Sets (Pruned Label Powerset) .. with P infrequent classes pruned, but up to N subcopies reintroduced java meka.classifiers.multilabel.PS -P 1 -N 1 -t data.arff -W weka.classifiers.functions.SMO
meta.EnsembleML m Ensembles of Pruned Sets (EPS) .. in an ensemble, P can be selected from a range java meka.classifiers.multilabel.meta.EnsembleML -t data.arff -W meka.classifiers.multilabel.PS -P 1-5 -N 1 -W weka.classifiers.functions.SMO
PSt p Pruned Sets thresholded .. with an internal threshold java meka.classifiers.multilabel.PS -P 1 -N 1 -t data.arff -W weka.classifiers.functions.SMO -- -M
NSR Nearest Set Replacement (NSR) Multi-target version of PS java meka.classifiers.multitarget.NSR -P 1 -N 1 -t data.arff -W weka.classifiers.functions.SMO
SCC Super Class/Node Classifier Creates super nodes, based on I simulated annealing iterations, V internal split validations, and runs NSR on them. java meka.classifiers.multitarget.SCC -I 1000 -V 10 -P 1 -t data.arff -W meka.classifiers.multitarget.CC -- -W weka.classifiers.functions.SMO
RAkEL Random k-labEL Pruned Sets .. in subsets of size k java meka.classifiers.multilabel.RAkEL -P 1 -N 1 -k 3 -t data.arff -W weka.classifiers.functions.SMO
RAkELd Disjoint Random Pruned Sets .. which are non-overlapping java meka.classifiers.multilabel.RAkELd -P 1 -N 1 -k 3 -t data.arff -W weka.classifiers.functions.SMO
SERAkELd Subspace Ensembles of RAkELd .. an a subset ensemble java meka.classifiers.multilabel.meta.RandomSubspaceML -I 10 -P 60 -A 50 -t data.arff -W meka.classifiers.multilabel.RAkELd -- -P 3 -N 1 -k 5 -W weka.classifiers.functions.SMO
HASEL Hierachical Label Sets .. disjoint subsets defined by a hierarchy in the dataset, e.g., @attribute C.C4 java meka.classifiers.multilabel.HASEL -t Enron.arff -P 3 -N 1 -W weka.classifiers.functions.SMO
MULAN -S RAkEL1 Random k-labEL Sets MULAN's implementation (no pruning); 10 models, subsets of size [half the number of labels] java meka.classifiers.multilabel.MULAN -t data.arff -S RAkEL1
MULAN -S RAkEL2 Random k-labEL Sets MULAN's implementation (no pruning); [2 times the number of labels] models, subsets of size 3 java meka.classifiers.multilabel.MULAN -t data.arff -S RAkEL2
meta.SubsetMapper m Subset Mapper Like ECOCs. Maps predictions to nearest known label combination (from training set) java meka.classifiers.multilabel.meta.SubsetMapper -t data.arff -W meka.classifiers.multilabel.BR -- -W weka.classifiers.functions.SMO

Pairwise and Threshold Methods#

Pairwise methods can work well, but they are very sensitive to the number of labels. One-vs-rest classifiers (e.g., RT) can be faster with large numbers of labels, but may not perform as well.

Class Name Description / Notes Examples
MULAN -S CLR Calibrated Label Ranking Compares each pair, 01 vs 10, with a calbrated label java meka.classifiers.multilabel.MULAN -t data.arff -S CLR
FW Fourclass Pairwise Compares each pair, 00,01,10,11, with threshold java meka.classifiers.multilabel.FW -t data.arff -W weka.classifiers.functions.SMO
RT p Rank + Threshold Duplicates multi-label examples into examples with one label each (one vs. rest). Trains a multi-class classifier, and uses a threshold to reconstitute a multi-label classification java meka.classifiers.multilabel.RT -t data.arff -W weka.classifiers.bayes.NaiveBayes

Other Methods#

Semi-supervised methods, when you want to use the testing data (labels are removed first) to help train, neural-network based methods (algorithm adaptation, no base classifier supplied), and `deep' methods which create a higher level feature representation during training.

Class Name Description / Notes Examples
EM mps Expectation Maximization Uses the classic EM algorithm java meka.classifiers.multilabel.meta.EM -t data.arff -I 100 -W meka.classifiers.multilabel.BR -- -W weka.classifiers.bayes.NaiveBayes
CM ms Classification Maximization .. a non-probabilistic version thereof java meka.classifiers.multilabel.meta.CM -t data.arff -I 100 -W meka.classifiers.multilabel.BR -- -W weka.classifiers.bayes.NaiveBayes
BPNN Back Propagation Neural Network Multi-Layer Perceptron with H hidden nodes, E iterations java meka.classifiers.multilabel.BPNN -t data.arff -H 20 -E 1000 -r 0.01 -m 0.2
DBPNN Deep Back Propagation Neural Network .. and with N layers, using RBMs for pretraining java meka.classifiers.multilabel.DBPNN -t data.arff -N 3 -H 20 -E 1000 -r 0.01 -m 0.2
DeepML m Deep Multi-label .. with any ML classifier on top java meka.classifiers.multilabel.meta.DeepML -t data.arff -N 2 -H 20 -E 1000 -r 0.01 -m 0.2 -W meka.classifiers.multilabel.CC -- -W weka.classifiers.functions.SMO

Updateable Methods for Data Streams#

Incremental methods suitable for data streams: classifying instances and updating a classifier one instance at a time. Note that accuracy is recorded in windows. Use -B to set the number of windows, and higher verbosity, e.g., -verbosity 5 to see the accuracy reported also per window. These methods are adapted versions of regular multi-label methods.

Class Name Description / Notes Examples
BRUpdateable Updateable Binary Relevance Use with any updateable base classifier java meka.classifiers.multilabel.incremental.BRUpdateable -B 10 -t data.arff -W weka.classifiers.trees.HoeffdingTree
CCUpdateable Updateable Classifier Chains Use with any updateable base classifier java meka.classifiers.multilabel.incremental.BRUpdateable -B 50 -t data.arff -W weka.classifiers.trees.HoeffdingTree
PSUpdateable Updateable Pruned Sets .. with initial buffer of size I, and max support S java meka.classifiers.multilabel.incremental.PSUpdateable -B 10 -I 500 -S 20 -t data.arff -W weka.classifiers.bayes.NaiveBayesUpdateable

Notes on Scalability#

Scalability in general depends on

  • The number of features: try doing feature selection first (see WEKA documentation, for example) and create a new ARFF file -- or use a subset meta method ensemble RandomSubspaceML
  • The number of instances: use an ensemble method EnsembleML with tiny subsets (e.g., -P 20 for 20 percent), or RandomSubspaceML
  • The number of labels: if over 1000 labels, use a label powerset method, if labelling is very dense and noisy (many label combinations), use a binary relevance method
  • The base classifier: Most methods already come with a 'sensible' default classifier, for example J48 as a base classifier for problem transformation methods, and CC as a default classifier for many ensemble methods. To use the default classifier simply leave out the -W option. However, the default classifier is not necessarily the fastest, or the best for your data! WEKA's SMO usually provides good results, but for large datasets you may have to use something like NaiveBayes or SGD. Keep in mind that some classes (like SMO) make many binary problems internally to deal with the multi-class case (i.e., as produced by label powerset methods).